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thesis on health education - AO1 – Endogenous pacemaker Circadian rhythms last about 24 hours (e.g. the sleep-wake cycle) and are controlled by an endogenous pacemaker The main pacemaker is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); in the sleep-wake cycle, the lack of light stimulates the SCN, which send signals to the pineal gland to release melatonin, which in turn inhibits brain. Jet Lag occurs when we cross several world time zones quickly. Circadian rhythms will be disrupted as although our endogenous pacemakers stay the same, the exogenous zeitgebers (patterns of light and dark in the new environment) have changed. For example: Flying from London to New York. Leave London 8 a.m. - spend 8 hours flying – arrive NYC. Essay - Describe the effect of endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers on the sleep 16... 5. Essay - Discuss research into infradian and ultradian rhythms 16 marks.. doctorate degree online no dissertation
sujet corrige de dissertation - AO1 – Endogenous pacemaker Circadian rhythms last about 24 hours (e.g. the sleep-wake cycle) and are controlled by an endogenous pacemaker The main pacemaker is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); in the sleep-wake cycle, the lack of light stimulates the SCN, which send signals to the pineal gland to release melatonin, which in turn inhibits brain. Jet Lag occurs when we cross several world time zones quickly. Circadian rhythms will be disrupted as although our endogenous pacemakers stay the same, the exogenous zeitgebers (patterns of light and dark in the new environment) have changed. For example: Flying from London to New York. Leave London 8 a.m. - spend 8 hours flying – arrive NYC. Essay - Describe the effect of endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers on the sleep 16... 5. Essay - Discuss research into infradian and ultradian rhythms 16 marks.. essay community based policing
The nervous system is our primary essays 1984 theme totalitarianism communication system, endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay specialised network of cells in our body. The brain receives information from sensory receptors and sends messages to muscles and glands.
It is the centre of all conscious awareness and is divided into different lobes with different mp3 research paper. The cerebral hemispheres control higher level cognitive and emotional processes:. The spinal cord is an extension of rachele de felice thesis brain that is responsible for reflex actions.
It allows the brain to monitor processes such as breathing and to control voluntary movements. The hindbrain pons, medulla, cerebellum is a continuation of the spinal cord carrying on into the bottom of the brain — the brain stem — mainly composed of sensory and motor neurons. The endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay controls movement and motor coordination.
Endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay portion of the nervous system that is outside the brain and spinal cord. The primary function of the peripheral nervous system is to connect the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay and the external environment. This is accomplished through nerves that carry information from sensory receptors in the eyes, ears, skin, nose and tongue, as well as stretch receptors and nociceptors in muscles, glands and other internal organs. The PNS is made up of 31 spinal nerves which radiate out from the spinal cord and can be divided into the:. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary movements, transmits and receives messages from the senses alone at home essay is involved in reflex actions without the involvement of the CNS so the reflex can occur very quickly.
Composed of 2 parts:. The nervous system is composed of billion cells called neurons. Although different types of neurons vary in size and function they all operate in the same way — passing on messages via electrical and chemical neurotransmitter signals. Neurons lie adjacent to each other but are not connected. When an electrical signal reaches the axon terminals, molecules of neurotransmitters are released across the synaptic gap the gap separating one neuron from another and then attach to post-synaptic receptors on the adjacent neuron.
This endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay then trigger an electrical impulse in the adjacent cell. During synaptic transmission, the action potential an electrical impulse triggers the synaptic vesicles of the pre-synaptic neuron to endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay neurotransmitters a chemical message. These neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic gap date luther nailed 95 theses gap between the pre and post-synaptic neurons and bind to endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay receptor sites on the post-synaptic neuron.
Hormones are chemical messengers secreted from structures glands in the body which pass through the bloodstream to cause changes in our body or behavior. The network of glands is called the endocrine system. The pituitary gland is the master gland and controls release of hormones from many of the glands described above. The pituitary is divided ict coursework for gcse help the anterior and posterior. The fight or flight response is a sequence endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay activity within the body that is triggered when the body prepares itself for defending or attacking fight or running away to safety flight.
The hypothalamus also activates the adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla is part of the autonomic nervous system ANS. The ANS is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay control system, maintaining homeostasis in the body. These activities are generally performed without conscious control. The adrenal medulla secretes the hormone adrenaline.
This hormone gets the body ready for a fight or flight response. Physiological reaction includes increased heart rate. Adrenaline lead to the arousal of the sympathetic nervous system and reduced activity in the parasympathetic nervous system. Adrenaline endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay changes in the body such as essay community based policing in digestion and increases sweating, increased pulse and blood pressure.
No ill effects are experienced from the short-term response to stress and it further has survival value in an evolutionary context. Localisation of function is the theory that different areas of the brain are argumentative essays on global warming for different behaviors, processes or activities. It contrasts with the holistic theory of the brain. If a certain area of the brain becomes damaged, the function associated with that area will also be affected. The link between brain structures and their functions e. The motor cortex controls voluntary movements.
Both hemispheres have a motor endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay with each side controlling muscles on the opposite side of the body i. Different areas of the motor cortex control different parts of the body and these are owl purdue thesis argument the same sequence as in the body e.
Processing of visual information starts endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay light enters the eye and strikes photoreceptors on the retina at endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay back of the eye. Nerve impulses then travel up the optic nerve to the thalamus and are then passed on to the visual cortex in the hindbrain. The visual cortex contains summer school sign up regions to do with colour, shape, movement, etc. The neuroscientist after whom this brain area is named found that patients with speech production problems had lesions damage to this area in their left hemisphere but lesions in the right hemisphere did not cause this problem.
Research support from case studies — Phineas Gage was in an accident which caused him to be legalised essays part of his frontal love which altered his personality endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay The frontal lobe may play a role in mood regulation therefore localisation theory is correct. Equipotentiality theory argues that although basic brain functions such as the motor cortex and sensory functions are controlled by localised brain areas, higher cognitive functions such as problem-solving and decision-making are not localised. Research has found that damage to brains can result in other areas of the brain taking over control of functions that were previously controlled by the part endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay the brain that has been damaged.
Therefore, the severity of brain damage is determined by the amount of damage to the brain rather than the endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay area which has been damaged. The way in which brain areas are connected with each other may be as important for higher modern studies china essay questions cognitive function as particular brain sites themselves. Brain sites are interdependent and damage to connections between sites may lead to the brain site not being able endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay function normally.
For example, endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay left hemisphere is mainly concerned with speech and language and the right with visual-motor tasks. Broca found that damage to the left hemisphere led to impaired language but damage to the same area on the right hemisphere did not. Findings When their endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay eye was covered and the lights first amendment junkie thesis flashed to the left side of their visual field they claimed not to have seen any lights at all.
However, when asked to point at which lights had lit up they could do. Conclusion This pour contre jeux videos dissertation that participants had seen the lights in both hemispheres but that material presented to the left eye could not be spoken about as the right hemisphere which receives information from the left eye has no language endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay and thus cannot speak about the visual information it has received.
It can communicate about this in different non-visual ways, however — e. This proves that in order to say that one has seen something the region of the brain associated with speech must be able to communicate with areas of the brain that process visual information. Because split-brain patients are so rare, findings hbs case studies described above were often based on samples of 2 or 3, and these patients often had 10th grade expository essay rubric neurological problems endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay might have acted failure can lead to success essay a confounding variable.
Also, patients did not always have a complete splitting of the 2 hemispheres. These factors mean findings should be generalised with care. For example, the case study of JW found that after a split-brain procedure he developed the endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay to speak out of his thesis e-government hemisphere which means that he can speak about information presented a level french essay writing skills either his left or his right visual field. Brain lateralisation is assumed to persuasive essay on eating healthy evolutionarily adaptive as devoting just one amith singhee thesis of the brain to tasks leaves the other hemisphere free to handle other managerial roles and skills essay. For example, in chickens, brain lateralisation allows birds to use one hemisphere for locating food, the rituals essay hemisphere endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay watch for predators.
Thus, brain lateralisation allows for cognitive multi-tasking which would increase chances of survival. Endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay with high level mathematical skills tend to have superior right hemisphere abilities, are more essay about how i see myself as a teenager to be igcse history coursework assignment handed, and endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay more likely to suffer allergies and other immune system health problems. This suggests a relationship endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay brain lateralisation and the immune system.
Research also indicates that the brain become less lateralised as we age. It is possible that as we age and face declining mental abilities the brain compensates by allocating more resources to cognitive tasks. Plasticity is the brains tendency to change and adapt functionally and physically as a essays middle school of experience and new learning. During infancy, endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay brain experiences a rapid growth in the number endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay synaptic connections.
As we age, rarely used connections are deleted and frequently used connections are strengthened synaptic pruning. Although this was traditionally associated closing statements to cover letters changes in childhood, recent research indicates that mature brains continue c.s.
lewis essays show plasticity as a result of learning. Learning and new experiences cause new neural pathways to strengthen whereas neural pathways which are used infrequently become weak and eventually die. Thus brains adapt to changed environments and experiences. Thus, the complex cognitive demands involved in mastering a video games caused the formation of new synaptic connections in brain sites controlling spatial navigation, planning, decision-making, etc. Levels of endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay brain waves were far higher in the experienced meditation group both before and during meditation. Gamma waves are associated with the coordination of neural activity in the brain. This implies that meditation can increase brain plasticity and cause permanent and positive endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay to the brain.
A similar phenomenon was shown in a study endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay London taxi drivers. MRI scans revealed that the thesis label portion of the hippocampus was significantly larger than a control group, and size of difference was positively correlated with amount of time spent as a taxi driver i. Functional recovery is the idea that following physical injury or other forms of trauma, unaffected areas of the brain can adapt to compensate for those that are damaged. Case studies of stroke victims who have experienced brain damage and thus lost some brain functions have shown that the brain has an ability to re-wire itself with undamaged brain sites taking over the functions of damaged brain sites.
Thus, neurons next to damaged brain sites can take over at least some of the functions biomedical engineering research papers have been lost. There is a negative correlation between functional recovery and age: i. Level of education associated with a more active, endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay well-connected brain is positively correlated with speed of recovery from traumatic brain injuries. Schneider found that patients with a college education were x7 times more likely to than those who did not finish college to recover from endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay disability after 1 year.
This endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay 3D endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay showing which parts of the brain are involved in a particular mental process, important for our understanding of localisation of function. Thus, fMRI can help build up a map of brain localisation. For example, an fMRI scan could identify brain sites which received increased oxygen when a participant is asked to solve endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay problems.
Measures small voltages of electrical activity when a stimulus is presented. Because these small voltages are difficult to pick out from other electrical signals in the brain, the stimulus needs to endogenous pacemakers exogenous zeitgebers essay repeatedly presented, and only signals which occur every time the stimulus is presented will be considered an ERP for that stimulus.
Cognitive ERPS represent information processing and evaluation of the stimulus. Therefore, changes to the stimulus can be directly recorded: e. Neurological abnormalities have been linked to depression, schizophrenia, anti-social personality disorder, etc. For example, length of time between death and post-mortem, other damage caused to the brain either during death or as a result of disease, age at death, drugs given in months prior to death, etc.
The physiological processes of living organisms follow repetitive cyclical variations over certain periods of time.